Published On: Sat, Mar 14th, 2015

23andMe presents tip 10 many engaging genetic commentary of 2010

23andMe has expelled a initial annual list of what it felt to be a 10 many engaging and poignant genetic commentary in 2010, as partial of an ongoing tour to know a purpose of genetics in personal health and tellurian development.

“Our bargain of a tellurian genome is accelerating during a startling rate,” settled Anne Wojcicki, co-founder and CEO of 23andMe. “Below we have collected a list of a tip 10 favorite genetic discoveries from 2010. We demeanour brazen to exploring some-more discoveries in 2011.”

Customers of 23andMe have a eventuality to learn about how their genetics can change their sold health traits, risk for building certain diseases and conditions, reactions to a accumulation of medications, and ancestry. Throughout a year, 23andMe monitors systematic publications for studies that produce sparkling glimpses into these areas. The organisation provides information on these developments to a business by continual updates to their Health and Traits reports, as good as “SNPwatch” postings to a company’s open blog, “The Spittoon.”

While 23andMe provides updates on genetic examine on a unchanging basis, it recognizes and cautions that in many cases some-more studies are indispensable before a examine can produce information of specific value to individuals. 23andMe therefore states that a studies described in The Spittoon’s SNPwatch array are for examine and educational functions only. SNPwatch is not dictated to be a surrogate for veteran medical recommendation and people should always find a recommendation of their medicine or other suitable medical veteran with any questions per diagnosis, cure, diagnosis or impediment of any medical condition.


1. Genetics influences either your physique figure is “apple” or “pear” — and that figure we are has implications for disease.

If you’ve been looking during an apple or pear physique figure in a mirror, take a closer demeanour during your genetic variants. This fall, 23andMe reported on new examine joining common genetic variants with inclination towards apple- and pear- physique shapes. A vast examine by a Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium investigated how genetics change waist and hip distance in scarcely 200,000 people from some-more than 50 studies. Published in Nature Genetics, a news identified 14 singular nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, or common genetic variants) — 13 new and one formerly reported — compared with physique fat distribution. These commentary have health implications given “apples”, whose weight concentrates around their middles, seem to be during incomparable risk for building heart illness and form 2 diabetes than their pear counterparts.

In serve to a sparkling new genetic associations, formula from this examine advise that genetics play a some-more poignant purpose in final physique fat placement in women than in men. As with plumpness and many other conditions with a clever environmental component, genes usually comment for a tiny square of a nonplus underlying variability in physique fat distribution. Even so, this examine finished an engaging observation: a variants compared with physique fat placement (measured by waist-hip-ratio) in their examine subjects seemed to be mostly graphic from those variants compared with altogether physique fat calm (measured by physique mass index (BMI)). Since a plcae of physique fat plays an critical purpose in illness risk, a softened bargain of a genetic risk factors underlying augmenting waist and hip distance competence lead to softened therapies or lifestyle recommendations. 23andMe business are means to viewpoint information for 9 variants compared with apple contra pear physique figure from this study.

“SNPwatch: Apple or Pear? How Genes Help Shape Your Shape,” Oct 19, 2010. The Spittoon.

Heid IM et al. (2010) Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci compared with waist-hip ratio and reveals passionate dimorphism in a genetic groundwork of fat distribution. Nat Genet. 42:949-960.

2. Genetic variations newly compared with risk for childhood asthma

New regions of a genome compared with childhood asthma, a flourishing open health regard around a US inspiring some-more than 7 million children, were found by researchers from a Center for Applied Genomics during The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) and a GABRIEL consortium, as published in dual studies in a New England Journal of Medicine. In a initial study, examine of DNA from about 1,700 children with asthma and 3,500 controls, all of European ancestry, identified several genetic variants on chromosome 1 compared with a risk of building childhood asthma. Many of these same variants were afterwards also found to be compared with risk for asthma in a representation of some-more than 1,600 African American children with asthma and 2,045 controls. All of a newly identified variants are located nearby a gene that encodes DENND1B, a protein famous to be concerned in a body’s response to unfamiliar particles.

The chromosome 1 variants identified by a CHOP researchers influenced a contingency of childhood asthma in opposite ways depending on ethnicity. Versions of a SNPs compared with augmenting risk in African Americans were compared with decreased risk in a European sample. This is not startling in genetic studies, and mostly reflects differences in a genetic backgrounds of opposite populations.

In a second study, researchers identified associations between variants on chromosomes 2, 6, 9, 15, and 22 and asthma in people with European ancestry, with stronger effects for childhood asthma. They also celebrated that a formerly reported organisation between a segment on chromosome 17 and asthma was specific to childhood asthma only. When a researchers looked for genetic associations with allergy ionization (a condition that is mostly associated to asthma) they found really tiny overlap, suggesting that allergy attraction competence be an outcome of asthma rather than a cause.

The dual studies’ commentary could lead eventually to a expansion of new forms of treatments for childhood asthma. Previous examine joining genetic variants on chromosome 17 with a risk for childhood asthma in Europeans suggested that these variants have an outcome usually in children who are unprotected to tobacco smoke. More examine will be indispensable to work out a details, though a significance of chromosome 17 in asthma was serve upheld by both of a stream studies, that replicated a prior commentary in serve to identifying new variants compared with a disease.

“SNPwatch: Breath Easier… New Insights From Asthma Research.” Oct 26, 2010. The Spittoon.

“SNPwatch: More Progress in a Search for Genetic Variants Linked to Childhood Asthma.” Jan 25, 2010. The Spittoon.

Sleiman PA et al. (2010) Variants of DENND1B Associated with Asthma in Children. New Eng J Med. 362:36-44.

Moffatt MF et al. (2010) A Large-Scale, Consortium-Based Genomewide Association Study of Asthma. New Eng J Med. 363: 1211-1221.

3. New Variants Influence Risk for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is a common autoimmune illness in that a individual’s possess defence complement attacks a backing of a joints, causing rigidity and flesh aches. Like other autoimmune diseases, expansion of rheumatoid arthritis is approaching caused by a formidable mixed of genetic and environmental factors. Recent examine into a genetics of a illness has identified many of a genetic factors, and new studies continue to implicate additional variants that competence change risk.

This year, SNPwatch presented a span of studies published in Nature Genetics that found several new genetic variants compared with rheumatoid arthritis. A examine organisation in Japan during a RIKEN Center for Genomic Medicine identified a variant, rs3093024, compared with rheumatoid arthritis risk in Japanese individuals. The second study, from Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, reliable a same organisation in people with European ancestry. In both studies, any duplicate of a A chronicle of a various augmenting an individual’s contingency of a illness by 1.1 to 1.2 times.

The RIKEN organisation demonstrated that a opposite versions of rs3093024, already connected to risk of Crohn’s disease, impact a function of a CCR6 gene, providing a intensity biological reason for a variant’s extend to rheumatoid arthritis risk. The Brigham and Women’s organisation also found several other genomic regions compared with rheumatoid arthritis in people with European ancestry, some of that had not nonetheless been associated to autoimmune disease.

“SNPwatch: Two Studies Connect More Immune System Genes to Rheumatoid Arthritis.” May 12, 2010. The Spittoon.

Kochi Y et al. (2010) A regulatory various in CCR6 is compared with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility. Nat Genet. 42:515-519.

Stahl EA et al. (2010) Genome-wide organisation examine meta-analysis identifies 7 new rheumatoid arthritis risk loci. Nat Genet. 42:508-514.

4. Understanding Alzheimer’s illness

Alzheimer’s illness is a many common means of insanity in people 65 years and older, and will spin an augmenting health regard as a race of a United States (and many other nations) ages. Currently some-more than 5 million Americans are suspicion to have a disease, though by a year 2050 that series is estimated to strech 14 million unless a heal or impediment process is developed.

Until really recently, mutations in usually one gene — APOE — had been conclusively compared with a some-more common late-onset form of Alzheimer’s (there are other mutations compared with early-onset, patrimonial Alzheimer’s disease). In a final few years, however, examine groups examine vast numbers of people have identified variants in several new genes with tiny effects on a disease.

As 23andMe reported in SNPwatch, researchers pulled together a formula of several studies to find new Alzheimer’s compared risk variants. The scientists, whose formula seem online in a Journal of a American Medical Association, advise that these variants competence be critical for unraveling a underlying biology of Alzheimer’s, that will be essential in a query to find new methods of treatment. The total examine also supposing support for formerly identified associations in a CLU and PICALM genes, though unsuccessful to endorse a third formerly reported organisation in a CR1 gene with Alzheimer’s disease.

Researchers from a CHARGE, GERAD1 and EADI1 Alzheimer’s examine consortia total information from tens of thousands of people with European ancestry. The formula of their examine concerned SNPs rs744373 nearby a BIN1 gene and rs597668 nearby theEXOC3L2/BLOC1S3/ MARK4 genes. The BIN1 gene encodes a protein that is rarely voiced in a mind and famous to be critical in processes that are disrupted by a plaques that form in a smarts of people with Alzheimer’s. Two of a genes nearby rs597668, BLOC1S3 and MARK4, encode mind proteins that are also concerned in processes that are disrupted in Alzheimer’s disease. The MARK4 protein in sold is engaging given it interacts with tau, a protein obliged for a tangles seen in a smarts of people with Alzheimer’s.

Although risk models that incorporated an individual’s information for a dual replicated CLU and PICALM gene regions did not almost urge prophecy compared to a normal indication regulating usually APOE status, age and sex, Nancy Pedersen of a Karolinska Institute in Sweden, points out in an concomitant editorial that this anticipating is not startling given a tiny outcome of these SNPs on risk and “only verifies a thought that AD is a polygenic disorder; i.e., that potentially tens of thousands of risk alleles, any with a tiny effect, are critical for guilt to disease. What is conspicuous is that a singular gene APOE is as critical as it is for this formidable disorder, and that right now, a many critical thing doctors can do is inspire people to make lifestyle changes, generally those that urge cardiovascular health, that competence revoke a risk of insanity or during slightest postpone it.”

“SNPwatch: Large Study Identifies Two More Genetic Variants Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease.” May 11, 2010. The Spittoon.

“SNPwatch: Largest Alzheimer’s Genetic Studies To Date Identify Three New Susceptibility Genes.” Sep 8, 2009. The Spittoon.

Seshadri S et al. (2010) Genome-wide Analysis of Genetic Loci Associated with Alzheimer Disease. J Am Med Assoc. 303(18):1832-1840.

Pedersen NL. (2010) Reaching a Limits of Genome-wide Significance in Alzheimer Disease. J Am Med Assoc. 303(18):1864-1865.

Harold D et al. (2009) Genome-wide organisation examine identifies variants during CLU and PICALM compared with Alzheimer’s disease. Nat Genet. 41:1088-1093.

Lambert J et al. (2009) Genome-wide organisation examine identifies variants during CLU and CR1 compared with Alzheimer’s disease. Nat Genet. 41:1094-1099

5. One distance doesn’t fit all — personalizing diagnosis

The aged adage, “take dual aspirin and call me in a morning,” doesn’t work as good as we competence think. It turns out that one distance doesn’t fit all when it comes to drug response, and for some people, certain drugs competence be some-more effective, not work during all, or even furnish critical side effects. The flourishing physique of pharmacogenomics examine has helped us know that, during slightest in part, genetics play a purpose in how good some drugs work for opposite people. The 23andMe Drug Response reports couple customers’ genetics to a proceed they competence respond to certain drugs and medications. The formula operation from either you’re approaching to advantage from a drug, need a opposite sip due to sensitivity, believe poisonous or inauspicious effects, or even have augmenting risk for other conditions. 23andMe cautions that a Drug Response reports should not be used to exclusively establish, abolish, or adjust medical diagnosis and drugs though should be discussed with your physician. Only a medical veteran can establish either a sold drug or sip is suitable for you.

In serve to joining customers’ genetics to a latest examine in pharmacogenomics, 23andMe is actively researching a genetic groundwork underlying differences in individuals’ responses to drugs. As a year drew to a close, 23andMe announced that, with appropriation from a National Institutes of Health, it is rising a multi-part pharmacogenomic examine project. The initial proviso of a plan will try to replicate famous genetic effects that change a efficiency and tolerability of 3 classes of medications: Warfarin, a ordinarily prescribed blood thinner; electron siphon inhibitors, a many frequently prescribed drugs for poison reflux; and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen.

In 2007 and again in 2010, a FDA updated a labeling for warfarin to embody information about how variations in dual genes, CYP2C9 and VKORC1, can impact a patient’s optimal sip of a drug. The latest refurbish supposing initial dose recommendations for patients with opposite various combinations. Studies are ongoing to establish a cost-benefits of regulating genetic contrast to urge drug dosing; a formula of such studies will change either and how fast personal genetic information becomes a slight partial of medical care. In August, The Spittoon lonesome these developments with an in-depth viewpoint of a formidable story and intensity destiny of pharmacogenomics.

“Health during 23andMe: When One Size Doesn’t Fit All.” Dec 14, 2010. The Spittoon.

“23andMe Launches Its First NIH-Funded Study.” Dec 16, 2010. The Spittoon.

“FDA Updates Label for Commonly Used Blood Thinner to Include Dosing Recommendations Based on Genetics.” Feb 4, 2010. The Spittoon.

“Pharmacogenetics: The Long Road From Bench To Bedside.” Aug 17, 2010. The Spittoon.

6. No thought nonetheless to how prolonged Geri-Boomers can design to live

As a initial baby boomers start to spin 65 and countenance for Medicare, 23andMe reflected on a genome-wide organisation examine of impassioned longevity published this year in a biography Science that perceived a lot of press attention. At initial peek a formula seemed utterly extraordinary: a authors identified 70 loci with genome-wide poignant justification for organisation with vital past a age of 100, and they assembled a SNP-based indication for presaging well-developed longevity that had 77% correctness in an eccentric set of individuals. However, a closer reading by 23andMe forked to some of a pitfalls in analyses of genome-wide datasets.

23andMe found several reasons for doubt about a results. Another genome-wide examine reported no poignant associations with longevity, suggesting there competence have been genotyping peculiarity control problems in a new results, and some slight peculiarity control checks did not seem to have been done. In addition, a rough examine of a due 150-SNP indication for presaging longevity indicated that it is not predictive in a 23andMe community.

23andMe expects that many of a formula of this examine will not have a same longevity as a participants. In genetics, as with many things in life, if a outcome seems too good to be true, it substantially is. That said, a examine did enclose some engaging tidbits, such as a organisation of rs2075650 nearby a APOE gene with longevity. This gene is an determined ionization gene for Alzheimer’s disease.

“SNPwatch: Uncertainty Surrounds Longevity GWAS.” Jul 17, 2010. The Spittoon.

Sebastiani P et al. (2010) Genetic Signatures of Exceptional Longevity in Humans. Science. Published Online Jul 1 2010, doi: 10.1126/science.1190532

Newman AB et al. (2010) A Meta-analysis of Four Genome-Wide Association Studies of Survival to 90 Years or Older: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 65A(5): 478-487.

7. Baby’s First Tooth May Be A Health Predictor

Some 23andMe SNPwatches concentration not on what’s new to be schooled in your personal genetic data, though on what we can learn about tellurian expansion and health by genetics. So it was fascinating to learn that baby’s initial tooth is some-more than a life eventuality to post on Facebook or share with a grandparents. This year SNPwatch common how researchers identified several genetic variations compared with a timing of a baby’s initial tooth and a series of teeth during age one as published in a biography PLoS Genetics.

All of a SNPs compared with initial tooth tear and teeth during age 1, that were identified in this examine of 6,000 people who had been followed by epidemiologists given early in their mothers’ pregnancies, are located in or around genes famous to have roles in organ formation, expansion and development, or cancer, so suggesting that studies of teething and other aspects of tot expansion competence have apart reaching implications. As a examine authors explained, “the discoveries of genetic and environmental determinants of tellurian expansion will assistance us to know a expansion of many disorders that seem after in life. We wish also that these discoveries will boost believe about since fetal expansion seems to be such an critical means in a expansion of many ongoing diseases.”

“SNPwatch: Researchers Identify Variations Associated With When Junior Gets His First Chompers.” Mar 4, 2010. The Spittoon.

Pillas D et al. (2010) Genome-wide Association Study Reveals Multiple Loci Associated with Primary Tooth Development during Infancy. PLoS Genet. 6(2): e1000856

8. Before we call that relations a “Neanderthal,” some some-more of what we’ve schooled about a apart past

Many 23andMe business are drawn by seductiveness in their ancestry, confirming family story and infrequently anticipating astonishing family lines. But what about justification of Neanderthal DNA in your genome? This fall, a examine of a Neanderthal genome, published in a biography Science presented clever justification from genome sequencing that humans and Neanderthals interbred.

John Timmer from Ars Technica summarizes scientists’ stream meditative on this subject well, observant a justification “became apparent when a Neanderthal genome was interconnected opposite tellurian genomes from opposite tools of a globe. The Neanderthal DNA consistently matched European and Asian samples softened than it did African; a disproportion was small, though consistent. It suggested that a Neanderthals, that were limited to Europe and Asia during a time complicated humans originated in Africa, had interbred with humans once they began migrating out of Africa.

Because African tellurian populations are older, they tend to have some-more anomalous genomes. But a human-Neanderthal apart is comparison still, so a authors figured that any areas of a genome where movement was incomparable in populations outward of Africa competence have entered a tellurian genome by interbreeding. If they did arise by interbreeding, afterwards a non-African segments should review Neanderthals. Researchers found during slightest 10 regions that fit these predictions.

Although they can’t order out a probability that complicated humans had already started diverging from Neanderthals before withdrawal Africa, a examine organisation favors a thought of interbreeding in a Mid-East as a initial complicated humans left Africa. This would safeguard that both a Asian and European populations picked adult some Neanderthal DNA.”

So we competence not have been too apart from a law when we referred to your cousin as a Neanderthal!

The Spittoon also reported on a examine published in Nature that used tufts of hair detected from a permafrost in Greenland and afterwards tucked divided in a groundwork in Denmark for some-more than 20 years to give scientists their initial glance into a genetics of an ancient human.

Eske Willerslev and Morten Rasmussen of a Centre for GeoGenetics during a Natural History Museum of Denmark and a University of Copenhagen sequenced 80% of a genome of a male from a Saqqaq Culture who walked a earth about 4,000 years ago. By comparing this ancient DNA method to what is famous about a genetics of complicated humans, a researchers were means to square together a design of what a male they call Inuk (“human” or “man” in Greenlandic) approaching looked like, where his people came from, and how he’s associated to complicated populations.

More importantly this bid valid that full genome method examine of ancient samples is possibly and is approaching to move about an blast of work in a field, from sequencing DNA from South American mummies to examine race story and genetic farrago of Native Americans to sequencing ancient tellurian DNA to exhibit when certain genetic diseases became prevalent in opposite populations.

Do we share genetic characteristics with Inuk? 23andMe business can check their tender information for genetic variants conversion blood type, eye and hair color, baldness, BMI, earwax type, hair thickness, shovel-graded teeth, and cold adaptation, and review their values to Inuk’s regulating a list in a Spittoon post.

“New Evidence Suggests Interbreeding Between Humans and Neanderthals.” May 6, 2010. The Spittoon.

Green RE et al. (2010) A Draft Sequence of a Neandertal Genome. Science. 328(5979):710-722.

John Timmer. “Genome hints humans, Neanderthals rolled in antiquated hay.” Ars Technica. Last mutated May, 2010.

“Researchers Use SNP Analysis to Paint Picture of an Ancient Human.” Feb 10, 2010. The Spittoon.

Rasmussen M et al. (2010) Ancient tellurian genome method of an archaic Paleo-Eskimo. Nature. 463:757-762.

9. A Fresh Look during Latino Genetic Ancestry

As a 2010 Census totalled a continued boost in a US Latino race over 3 decades, an engaging examine this year reported in a Proceedings of a National Academy of Sciences investigated DNA from 100 people, any with stock from one of 4 Latin American populations: Colombian, Dominican, Ecuadorian, and Puerto Rican. History tells us to design that these Latino populations should be a reduction of Native American, European, and African populations. By comparing a Latino DNA with anxiety individuals’ DNA from these 3 source populations, regulating an examine identical to that of 23andMe’s Ancestry Painting feature, a researchers found sheer genetic differences between a Latino groups, and between people within any group.

The examine found that Latino populations differ considerably in a extend of a source populations. In Ecuador and Colombia, there is typically tiny African extend to ancestry, and many people are genetic mixes of European and Native American. But in a Caribbean locations of Puerto Rico and a Dominican Republic, during a western strech of a African worker trade, people typically embody estimable African ancestry.

Besides being a fascinating scrutiny of healthy history, this examine suggests that there competence be unsentimental consequences to Latin American genetic diversity. This is given medical genetic examine can be some-more formidable in different populations. In a box of organisation studies, a name of a diversion is to examine dual groups of people who differ usually with honour to either they have a illness of seductiveness or not; people in a illness organisation should have a same brew of age, gender, ancestry, etc. as in a non-disease group. The genetic farrago of Latin American populations competence impede such studies given of a problem in building genetically-matched groups. The study’s authors advise that new techniques competence need to be grown to lift out genetic examine in Latino populations.

“The Widely Whirled New World: A Fresh Look during Latino Genetic Ancestry.” May 7, 2010. The Spittoon.

Bryc K et al. (2010) Genome-wide patterns of race structure and accretion among Hispanic/Latino populations. Proc Natl Acad Sciences. 107(S2):8954-8961.

10. Web-based examine works!

It was a good year for 23andMe, as it proudly announced that a new web-based examine model (23andWe) works and denounced a initial peer-reviewed systematic study. The results, published final open in PLoS Genetics, encompassed replications of prior commentary as good as newly detected genetic associations. 23andWe is a web-based, participant-driven examine horizon designed to promote a fast recruitment and phenotyping of participants for many studies during once, so shortening a time and income indispensable to make new discoveries. In this peer-reviewed paper 23andMe reliable that self-reported information from business has a intensity to produce information of allied peculiarity as information collected regulating normal examine methods, relocating systematic examine forward, faster.

Over 9,000 people contributed information to a examine of 22 apart traits. Novel SNP associations were suggested for hair curl, asparagus anosmia (the inability to detect a smell of certain asparagus metabolites in urine), a photic sneeze automatic (the bent to sneeze when entering splendid light), and freckling. Previously identified genetic associations between 9 genes and certain pigmentation-related traits (hair color, eye color, and freckling) were replicated.

At a annual American Society of Human Genetics assembly in November, 23andMe scientists also announced rough formula from several studies, including examine into a genetics of Parkinson’s disease, spreading illness and earthy traits; correctness and opening of displaying risk regulating common genetic variants; and riposte of additional genetic associations on a vast scale. In a spring, 23andMe also launched a new 23andWe village clinging to advancing examine into sarcoma, a singular set of cancers that impact a bone and junction tissues.

The year sealed with a launch of 23andMe’s initial NIH saved examine after receiving a NIH Small Business Innovative Research Grant (SBIR) to countenance a web-based proceed to pharmacogenomics research. The NIH is a largest source of medical examine appropriation in a world. Through a support of innovative training programs and systematic projects, a NIH facilitates medical discoveries that lead to softened health and peculiarity of life. NIH grants are rarely desired by attention scientists and academics alike. In serve to a appropriation itself, a NIH extend demonstrates support and approval of a work by a heading bureaucratic examine agency.

The initial proviso of this bid is identical to that initial PLoS examine publication: to denote that 23andMe can replicate famous genetic associations regulating a web-based consult information volunteered by a customers, now numbering over 60,000. The successive pharmacogenomics plan is distinct, however, in that collecting self-reported remedy information around a web will benefaction singular challenges. 23andMe recognizes that remember of remedy use and side effects competence be bad and formidable for people to accurately report. The use of mixed drugs competence also mystify efforts to besiege that drugs means specific responses or side effects. Still, a intensity rewards are extensive — validation of a large-scale, cost-effective, and fast proceed for finding new pharmacogenomic markers would be a poignant extend to personalized medicine.

As 2011 proceeds, 23andMe looks brazen with fad about receiving this appropriation for one of a tip examine priorities — a enrichment of personalized medicine by genetic studies — and in a suggestion of a 23andWe examine paradigm, will continue to work together with a participants to make examine discoveries and learn some-more about a information encoded in a genomes.

Eriksson N et al. (2010) Web-Based, Participant-Driven Studies Yield Novel Genetic Associations for Common Traits. PLoS Genetics. 6(6):e10000993.

“23andMe Publishes in PLoS Genetics, Validates New Research Paradigm.” Jun 24, 2010. The Spittoon.

“23andWe Research Update: Something Old and Something New.” Dec 10, 2010. The Spittoon.

“23andMe Launches Sarcoma Community.” Apr 15, 2010. The Spittoon.

“23andMe Launches Its First NIH Funded Study.” Dec 16, 2010. The Spittoon.

Source : 23andMe Inc.

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